Sustainable Cities and Communities

ACCESS TO SAFE, AFFORDABLE, ACCESSIBLE AND SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SYSTEMS IN AFGHANISTAN

Afghanistan and its capital, Kabul, are often in the news as they recover from the years of war with the help of the international community and in particular the United States. Much of the transportation infrastructure has either been damaged or has deteriorated due to lack of regular maintenance over the last three decades. This article presents an overview of the current state of transportation in Afghanistan and highlights the opportunities for improving the transportation situation through practical research. Specifically, this article discusses the layout and demographics of Afghanistan, the system of roads, the traffic composition and demand, the public transportation system, the freight and air transportation systems, the traffic regulations, highway safety, transportation security and vehicle emissions. By outlining the current state of affairs, the potential areas of research and improvement are identified. Two important areas of research include systematic planning to rectify the haphazard development that occurred in recent years and creative traffic control strategies to improve highway efficiency and safety. Out of the past destruction of transportation infrastructure arises a Phoenix-like opportunity to re-birth a brand new transportation system for Kabul and Afghanistan.

RAINWATER HARVESTING: THE BEST SOLUTION TO MITIGATE URBAN WATER SUPPLY CRISIS OF SOUTH ASIA

Sustainable water supply management is vital for the sustainable development of the urban areas of South Asia, especially because of the added pressure of the ever-increasing population, environment pollution and industrialization in this region. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth look into the practicality of using rainwater harvesting as a supplementary water supply system alongside the existing water supply to mitigate the crisis. In this paper, secondary data analysis and projected calculation have been done from various research papers, websites, journals, blogs, books, reports etc. From projected calculation, it has been found that 11,735.642 liters of rainwater per capita can be harvested annually in Dhaka City. This paper implies that rainwater harvesting method exclusively mitigates the water management problems that urban South Asia faces and demonstrates the whole impact and policy of the project and is concluded with proper recommendations and calculations.

BHUTAN’S PAPER ON SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND COMMUNITIES

Industrialization and urbanization are two important transformations that shaped the past century. These transformations will continue in the new century. Cities concentrate people, enterprises, motor vehicles and their wastes. While this can make cities very dangerous places to live and work because the use of land, materials, and energy will increasingly meet natural limits or be constrained by intergenerational equity arguments. However this same concentration brings many potential advantages for ensuring universal provision of infrastructure and services, keeping down waste levels, re-using waste streams and de-linking a high quality infrastructure (all-weather roads and paths, piped water, sewers, drains, electricity) and services (including daycare, all forms of schools and health care, emergency services and access to the rule of law and to government).

PEOPLE’S PLANNING FOR SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND COMMUNITIES THE CASE STUDY OF ATTINGAL TOWN, KERALA

The problem of urbanization has created tremendous stress on the existing resources. Therefore, Sustainable development has much relevance today. The paper comprises 5 sections through which the unique approach of participatory planning process initiated in Kerala, India is analyzed. For empirical understanding, People’s Planning in a municipality of Kerala, Attingal, is studied. The municipality’s achievements in different fields like sanitation, women empowerment, social and economic spheres through proper implementation of people’s planning are looked in detail to validate the conclusion that participatory planning at the local level has the potential to optimally utilize resources for sustainable development of the region. This is an idea that can be adopted by the South Asian Nations as well.

COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS: RECONSTRUCTING KATHMANDU CITY TO MAKE IT BETTER

Since a resilient, safe and sustainable city is the desire of every citizen of a state or a city. Thus this paper presents the approximate costs and benefits analysis of having the city as a sustainable one. And tries to answer, can Kathmandu be one of the sustainable cities by reconstruction or not? Hence with the help of the secondary data this report is able to found that, yes it’s possible to turn Kathmandu as a safe and sustainable city with little patience and sacrifice in terms of costs, for which a commoner or taxpayer must bear the burden of a short run but in long run the relative benefit is way greater in terms of lives and physical or economic values (wealth’s) whereas the cost incurred is only in terms of wealth. Thus, Kathmandu could be one of sustainable as well as the livable city.

ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN EDUCATION: EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN

The consistent failure of the governments in South Asia in ensuring equitable and quality education for all children has forced them to look for alternate ways of service delivery. One such way, Public Private Partnerships are being increasingly used to improve market outcomes. This paper uses econometric analysis to compare outcomes of schools working under such arrangements with that of public schools using data from the province of Sindh in Pakistan to analyze the efficiency of such partnerships. The results raise several important policy questions.

PROMOTING PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION AND HOUSEHOLD BEST PRACTICES FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN SUB-URBAN AREAS OF SRI LANKA

In developing countries, the rapid growth of population, industrialization, and urbanization leads to increase the solid waste generation. Sri Lanka, as the highest per capita waste generated country in South Asia, faces serious difficulties, especially in waste recycling part. Strength and the capability of local authorities are not enough to make a sustainable process for solid waste management. This research searched the competency of promoting private sector participation as a supporting service for local authorities. And it attempted to identify the impact of households’ waste-related practices on the current waste issue in the country. Basically, three indicators were designed and finally, it was found that there is 85% high competency for promoting private sector participation according to social aspect while there is 100% competency according to an institutional aspect.