Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure

IMPACT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF AFGHANISTAN

Afghanistan remains one of the poorest countries in the world with an estimated per capita income of 580 US dollars. By all accounts, progress to date for moving Afghanistan out of poverty and on to a path of economic and socio-political recovery has been arduous and slow. In recent years government and donor-supported programs and policies have increasingly been concerned about the development of the private sector and tapping into Afghanistan's pool of entrepreneurial capacity.

COUNTERING PREMATURE DEINDUSTRIALIZATION: CAN SOUTH ASIA OVERCOME THE INNOVATION CONUNDRUM?

This study aimed to evaluate the role and nature of innovation in countering the recent phenomenon of premature deindustrialization in the South Asian region. The research was designed on the basis of literature reviewed, which showed contending opinions relating innovation to industrialization and economic growth. This study found the existence of a positive correlation between innovation and industrialization through a regression analysis. An examination of the innovation scenario in South Asia using game theory revealed a conundrum – despite overwhelming incentives to innovate, the region is a consistent underperformer in innovative practices. A second regression analysis determined that economy size, international trade, tertiary education, and telecommunications infrastructure are decisive factors for boosting national innovation. On the basis of these findings, focusing on these areas is imperative for improving innovation, and combating the deindustrialization phenomenon in South Asia.

BHUTAN’S PAPER ON INDUSTRY, INNOVATION, AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all is fundamental to human development and is also a necessary investment in our collective future. Therefore, in this paper, I have highlighted and focused particularly on my country (Bhutan) on the journey of achieving the sustainable development goals in clean and affordable energy. So, energy is inextricably linked to most of the global challenges now and in the future, including poverty, food security, clean water, public health, education, economic growth, youth’s and women’s empowerment, and climate change. Bhutan's ambitious vision of 100% renewable energy supply is based on hydropower as the main source of clean electrical energy supply and it is done through the Eco-friendly technique causing a minimum or no impact on the environment to full fill the achievement of the sustainable development goals.

CAN I PLAY A MASTER-STROKE IN BOOSTING SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROWTH IN INDIA?

Indian economy has seen exceptional growth over the last decade and is expected to carry forward this trajectory of growth in the future. One of the crucial factors that can help propel the growth in the right direction is the implementation of recently enacted Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The paper discusses the prospects of one such SDG, Industry Innovation and Infrastructure (I3) SDG-9. The paper starts off with an empirical study on the parameters of SDG 9 to establish the significance of I3 in context to Indian Economy. Stating its relevance, the paper proceeds to see the status of various indicators of I3 by carrying out a comparative study with some selective East-Asian countries. The paper ends with a discussion on the above two findings and concludes on the irrefutability of SDG9 in boosting socio-economic growth.

HOME STAY IN NEPAL

This study intends to highlight the importance of rural tourism in uplifting rural living standard and economy. This study is an empirical analysis of Nagarkot community homestay and adopts some questionnaires and interviewing techniques to describe the present and possible future scenario of sustainable tourism. It derives the conclusion that there are many advantages and prospects of rural tourism in developing countries like Nepal.

DEFENSE SPENDING AND ITS IMPACT ON CAPITAL ACCUMULATION IN SOUTH ASIA

One of the primary factors assumed to explain the substantial declines in political systems is the high military overhead costs that are borne by leaders. Increasingly high defense burdens, it has been noted, can only be achieved at the cost of investment, capital formation, and economic growth. This paper focuses on military expenditure’s relationship with capital formation specifically, and does so by empirically analyzing the relationship between these two variables in the context of South Asia, by conducting individual country and cross-country regressions over the time period 1990–2016.

EXPENDITURES ON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH; THE SOUTH ASIAN CONTEXT

It has been identified through theoretical as well as empirical literature that innovation is the backbone of industrialization as well as economic sustainability. This paper attempts to identify the role of innovation through a proxy variable: R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP, to examine its impact on economic growth. Given the constraints in finding appropriate data for the study, a panel data model is conducted instead to identify and compare the impacts of the South Asian region and BRICS countries. This paper also attempts to fill the literature gap in regarding innovation and economic growth in the South Asian region.