Affordable and Clean Energy

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH RENEWABLE ENERGY IN AFGHANISTAN

Unclean and non-renewable energy is one of biggest issues which mostly developing and less developed countries faces. Afghanistan is one of those countries which has much capacity of renewable energy ¬¬¬ rural areas but fossil energy is being used which causes many issues in society. The most important point which will be focused on this research is Target 7.1 of SDG 7 which ensuring universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services by 2030. Nowadays, in the 21st century that developed countries are thinking about flying from earth to other planets, but still here in Afghanistan Asia people live in cities with no access to clean energy and electricity. So on 2015 United Nations while creating Sustainable Development Goals, decided to Affordable and Clean Energy with 5 targets and more than 8 indicators to address issues on behalf of accessibility of Affordable and Clean Energy to all. So Afghanistan is one of the countries who work to achieve SDGs by 2030. As Affordable and Clean Energy is one important goal whose achieving is critical for Afghanistan. Besides, in Afghanistan, fossil energy has more priority than renewable energy among people.

DOES RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLVE THE CONFLICT BETWEEN ENERGY GENERATION & ENVIRONMENT QUALITY? WHICH FACTORS IMPROVE RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT?

For last few decades increasing emission of GHG has been a major on-going concern throughout the world where around 76% CO2 emission results from burning traditional fossil fuel for electricity generation. However, to cope up with the rising economic growth, energy development is a global requirement. This conflicting issue has brought this paper to bring a way out to combine energy with the environment but in a sustainable positive manner where energy & environment quality both can go ahead hand in hand. The continuous development of RE is the ultimate solution. Using data from WDI, EIA this paper aims at analyzing not only this base of interest that is whether SDG 7 can be considered as a globally enabling factor for the implementation of SDG 13 but also If the answer is positive then what are the global factors to boost up this RE development has been considered from the standpoint of both game theory & econometric analysis. The results have been found in accordance with expectation. Some comparative analysis for RE reveals policies in this area will vary across countries, reflecting local contexts and preferences.

BHUTAN’S PAPER ON AFFORDABLE AND CLEAN ENERGY

This paper brings out the nature and challenges of Bhutanese economy in terms of building resilient infrastructure, industrialization and fostering innovation. For Bhutan sustainable development is not a policy or a strategy it is the practical work that has been put into an action and practice in the course of achieving economic growth and development in the country. Coinciding with the conservation of the natural pristine environment, stringent economic models need to be enacted in the development process of the country. Gross domestic product with the inclusion of gross national happiness has been used as a development model for Bhutan. This paper discusses some of the economic models that have been used to identify ways and means to increase economic growth.

ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ITS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

This paper proposes to establish, a relationship between the use of renewable energy consumption (REC), non-renewable energy consumption (NREC) and their impact on the rate of economic growth. The study obtains an insignificant REC and a more significant and positive NREC with respect to CO2 emissions in both the long-run and the short-run. In case of economic growth (YG), both REC and NREC are found to be insignificant in the long-run as well as the short-run. For this Auto Regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) model was used. Similarly, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS) Method suggests that show that for all countries except Bangladesh and Maldives, NRECI is negative and significant with EBEPI. Similarly, with respect to GDP, both RECI and NRECI are mostly positive and significant with RECI having a greater impact on GDP than NCI. This paper introduces the concept of True Growth, using which it is found that for Afghanistan and Nepal, environmental degradation is lesser than the economic growth caused by non-renewable energy consumption, which makes their True Growth negative.

TO WHAT EXTENT HYDROELECTRICITY SUBSTITUTE FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY? CASE OF NEPAL

This report present significance of using renewable energy over fossil fuels and also shows the status of renewable energy sources in South Asia and compare them with Nepal. Data related to hydropower of Nepal like 3% of its energy contribution in total energy, total 967 MW electricity from hydropower as well as thermal and solar sources are included here. Also, detail data of different hydropower projects under construction and planned hydropower projects is shown here. Furthermore, analysis of loss due to the import of electricity from India, pollution caused by using fossil fuel based transportation system and the traditional cooking system is done here. Analysis of electricity demand and electricity generation shows that by 2020, there will be surplus electricity in Nepal. Moreover, hydropower is the base for Nepal for sustainable development as well as to control the high degree of pollution.

MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF HIGH AIR POLLUTION IN PAKISTAN AND INDIA ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE SOLAR POWER (PV)

Air pollution in India and parts of Pakistan has risen to record levels. This, in turn, can affect solar energy production aimed to address the current energy crisis. The intent of this paper is to discuss the negative impact of worsening air pollution on solar energy production efficiency and argue that in order to achieve efficient solar energy production, air pollution needs prompt attention. An econometric model is proposed here to investigate the relationship between air pollution and solar power production efficiency. This, in turn, can be used as a tool to guide regional policy.

ENERGY TRADE WITHIN SOUTH ASIAN REGION: MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY MARKET INTEGRATION

This paper attempts to measure the existing level of Energy Market Integration while observing the patterns and development occurred in the past utilizing Dynamic Principle Component Analysis focusing on five dimensions such as Energy trade liberalization, Investment liberalization, Energy infrastructure, National Market openness and Price marketization. Existing literature identifies that there are a great potential and a comparative advantage in South Asia for the creation of renewable energy such as Solar, Hydro and Wind power. Despite the existing potential, South Asia still is behind in providing its citizens with the affordable energy due to various reasons. According to the PCA results, it is evident that while Sri Lanka has the highest level of EMI, Bangladesh has the lowest, also that as a region price marketization, investment liberalization and low inadequate energy infrastructure are the lagging factors respectively. And in order to create and Trade between its neighbor countries which in turn provides Clean, Sustainable and Affordable energy for the households in South Asia, countries in the region should journey towards a collective goal and integrate themselves in the regional Energy markets.