Clean Water and Sanitation

THE IMPACT OF WATER SUPPLY ON CHILD HEALTH IN AFGHANISTAN

The aim of this paper is to study water supply system in rural Afghanistan and its impact on Child Health, particularly diarrhea, the mortal disease for under five children in Afghanistan. While Afghanistan has the second highest rate of under-five mortality in the world, with thousands of children dying every year. Hopefully, the country has seen progress in water supply improvement which has led to a decrease in child mortality in the past 25 years. Between 1990 and 2013, child mortality has decreased by 46%, in this paper the institutions involved and their achievements will be studied.

INADEQUATE SANITATION AS AN IMPEDIMENT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A QUALITATIVE APPROACH

Being situated on the coast of Indian Ocean and having being grabbed by the most notable islands, mountains, and immense natural beauties, South Asia has the most overwhelming prospect to reach the peak of progress. But the economy of this region is still obstructed by the struggle of poverty, diseases, low human development, lack of education and many more. Of all the problems it is surrounded with, sanitation problem has stood as the most noteworthy one. South Asia is the redoubtable victim of reduced improved sanitation which gives rise to diseases, increased child mortality rate, decreased GDP growth rate, unhygienic environments along with low human capital investment and human skill development. This paper, by gathering relevant research findings will portray the real sketch of sanitation condition along with its vicious effects on child mortality rate and a constructive comparison of the sanitation structure with other regions of the world and will depict how the prosperity of South Asia towards a sustainable development is hindered by unimproved sanitation problem.

BHUTAN’S PAPER ON CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION

The sustainable development goals have been targeted to take up the actions following the successful completion and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In order to implement the SDG objectives, seventeen different goals have been identified. The sixth goal corresponds to clean water and sanitation which is observed as the basic primary requirements for any nation to venture into other developmental goals because, without a healthy lifestyle, nothing is possible. The paper presents some of the present water and health scenario in the south Asian region, the adverse health issues related to it and some of the challenges in achieving the goal. Similarly, it also presents the scenario of safe drinking water and sanitation in Bhutan, the main challenges and finally, it provides some of the important solutions and recommendations for any nation to achieve sustainable development with respect to clean water and sanitation which eventually ensures the successful achievement of the other goals.

OPEN DEFECATION IN INDIA: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

India is home to more than half of the world’s population that defecates in the open, and it has seen a plodding progress in ending open defecation when compared with other countries. This paper critically evaluates different reasons advanced for the country's dismal performance in the area of sanitation while it also looks at recent research that holds cultural idiosyncrasies responsible for the abysmal record. After identifying and qualifying the factors underlying the widespread open defecation in rural India, we briefly outline its consequences on India's economic growth via its adverse impact on children's physical growth and cognitive development.

FACTORS AFFECTING SANITATION AND HYGIENE PRACTICE IN NEPAL: CASE OF HAND WASHING

This report is prepared in the field of sanitation and hygienic especially focused on hand washing. Hand washing is an essential element for human beings. This is also the element to suffer from the disease. This report is based on primary data and sample size of 1235 households and seven districts of Nepal. Descriptive studies with frequency and logistic regression methods are used. SPSS was used to analyze the data. This study finds the hand washing practice of different districts of Nepal. Major factors like age, family, gender, education, and ethnicity and so on were studied as well as the occasion of hand washing was also analyzed among the districts and 97% of people wash hand and 91% of people use soap for hand washing. This study shows that there exist few numbers of people who are not aware of hand washing and its benefits.

IMPACT OF INADEQUATE WATER AND SANITATION ON WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN PAKISTAN

Equitable and safe access to water and sanitation is recognized as a goal of sustainable development yet continues to be overlooked by policymakers at a national level. There are far-reaching consequences of this oversight in terms of both health and productivity of households. While the problem is a fundamental one, inequalities in household dynamics create a skewed impact of inadequate water and sanitation whereby the majority of consequences may possibly be borne by women and children. This paper uses empirical data to analyze whether this is the case in households in Pakistan using survey data.

THE IMPACT OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH ASIA

What are the impact of rural water supply and sanitation on economic growth in South Asia? The objective of this study is to analyze the particular issue. A panel data analysis was conducted including four South Asian countries, for the period 1990-2015. The findings indicated that the rural population’s access to improved water sources has a significant, positive impact on economic growth in South Asia in the long run and the rural population’s access to improved sanitation facilities has no significant impact on the region’s economic growth either in the long run or short run. Causality analysis showed that capital growth Granger causes economic growth as well as rural sanitation. Thus, South Asia should increase investments in rural water supply in order to achieve higher economic growth. It should also increase capital accumulation through better economic policies, in order to achieve a higher level of both rural sanitation and economic growth.