Gender Equality

IMPACT OF WOMEN’S ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN A HOUSEHOLD

This paper focuses on women’s income through their financial activities for the households and the objectives of that to figure out the role of economic activities of women on the families and society, for enrolment of women to the economy there is a crucial need to empower women in different aspects of education, decision making, promote their skills. Despite the more challenges that Afghan women are faced in the society, for example, cultural believes, families barriers, security, and financial problems, the role of women in the economy is good. For the empowering women to be involved in the economy there are lots of principles existed to do. The most important is to encourage and give them the opportunities to gain the best education and improve their skills. As the women are made half of society’s population, there will be not an improvement in the society when women are not improved. This paper has a quantitative method that has been accomplished by the survey as primary data at Kabul Afghanistan.

IN SEARCH OF THE FACTORS REDUCING GENDER INEQUALITY: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

Gender Discrimination, inequality, and violence have long been at the center of discussion in the literature. The objective of the current paper is to observe the factors influencing the improvement in gender inequality. In doing so, the paper observes the gender inequality condition in South Asia and the status quo of South Asia’s stance on the global gender inequality ladder. Due to patriarchal social norms and conservative social structure, the females of South Asian countries are found to lag behind their male counterparts in a number of socio-economic indicators. With the help of a panel data of 156 countries ranging from 1995 to 2015, this paper attempted to explain gender inequality through a number of relevant variables. In this context, the gender inequality index of the Human Development Report of UNDP has been utilized. The factors attributing to reducing gender inequality has been sought through ordinary least square, random effect as fixed effect models. Our result revealed the importance of per capita GDP, government expenditure in education, trade GDP ratio and access to electricity having a significant impact on reducing gender inequality.

BHUTAN’S PAPER ON GENDER EQUALITY

Although the world as achieved the progress towards gender equality and women empowerment there are many females in developing world still struggling to find her place in the society. The current gender equality concern has always been more focused on women as globally, women have always been lagging behind with access to fewer life opportunities in economic participation, minimum access to basic and higher education and political representation. Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world.

THE ECONOMIC COST OF GENDER INEQUALITY

Gender normative roles act as determinants in resource allocation decisions of households through differentiated choices in investment in the education of boys and girls. Historically, women have fewer years of education compared to men; and although this trend is drastically changing, women in the labor force continue to work longer hours with lower wages and are fewer in number than their counterpart. For households and economies to function at their full potential, resources, skills, and talent should be put to their most productive use. If societies allocate resources on the basis of on one’s gender, as opposed to one’s skills and abilities, this allocation comes at a cost. The paper aims to assess the impact of inequality on growth by exploring first, whether there is any relationship between gender and growth as a whole then narrowing the study to the developing world where inequality is both apparent and larger in nature (here, a South Asian case study is modeled).

LAND OWNERSHIP OF WOMEN IN RELATION TO WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

The paper explains the scenario of gender equality of Nepal regarding the property and land ownership of women and attempts to know the consequences of women's ownership of land in relation to women empowerment. The paper also shows the land ownership of women in Nepal with respect to age, residence, ecological belt, development region, geography, education and wealth quintile. The paper is descriptive in nature and secondary sources of data are used. The paper further explains the legal provisions associated with land ownership to women and its effect on increasing the land registration of women. The sources of land ownership of women and the barriers that have been facing for land ownership by the women can be studied within the paper. The paper discusses the reasons of increasing land ownership of women and concludes with its benefits to the society and country.

SEX COMPOSITION AND SON PREFERENCE IN PAKISTAN: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

This paper investigates the family-level effects of son preference, as realized through differential stopping behavior, on the sex composition of the children born to ever-married women in Pakistan. Following the analysis conducted by Clark in 2000 using the comparable NFHS survey for India, this study uses data from the 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey to investigate the socioeconomic characteristics related to a higher expressed preference for sons. It also demonstrates that the two effects predicted by Clark, namely, that larger family sizes exhibit a smaller proportion of sons, and families with specific socioeconomic characteristics both want and attain a higher proportion of sons once the family size is controlled for, are evident in representative data on Pakistan. In a sample of 12,914 women, the respondent’s level of education, household wealth, and ethnicity are found to significantly impact stated son preference. The analysis is conducted using sampling weights provided in the DHS 2012-2013 survey.

WOMEN INFORMAL SECTOR PARTICIPATION IN SOUTH ASIA: THE SRI LANKAN EXPERIENCE

This paper attempts to investigate women’s informal sector participation in Sri Lanka. The objectives of this study are identifying the determinants of women’s informal sector participation in Sri Lanka, to examine the impact of such determinants on the growth process in Sri Lanka and to evaluate the areas or sectors where there should be policy amendments. The study is based on cross-section data obtained from the Sri Lanka Labor Force Survey (SLFS) in 2015, conducted by Department of Census and Statistics (DCS), Sri Lanka. The methodology adopted for the study is a combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The quantitative approach is based on binomial logistic regression analysis in order to figure out the determinants of informal sector employment in Sri Lanka. The qualitative approach is based on the literature review focusing on the Sri Lankan literature in order to compare the results derived in the Sri Lankan context. Finally, the study identified the areas or sectors where there should be policy amendments.