Climate Action, Life below Water and Life on Land

RENEWABLE ENERGY POTENTIALS IN AFGHANISTAN & ITS ROLE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Access to energy has been one of the main issues in Afghanistan for decades. 77 percent of the country’s total available electricity is imported from neighboring countries and only 30 percent of Afghanistan population has access to the grid. Besides, heavy reliance on burning fossil fuels and firewood has caused air pollution and deforestation. This paper demonstrates the available potential of renewable energy sources in Afghanistan and its contribution to sustainable development of the country. The findings of this study indicate that Afghanistan holds a significant potential for renewable energy sources; including hydro, solar, wind, geothermal and biomass. Deployment of renewable energy sources can meet the total demand for electricity in the country and it will mitigate climate change through providing sustainable energy to the country’s population in order to reduce reliance on burning fossil fuels and decrease forest degradation.

EMISSION CONTROL: NUDGING TOWARDS A BETTER FUTURE

The South Asian nations cannot, by any means, be considered to be existent in the pool of countries who have already taken significant regulatory measures against emission. The key reason behind this is, the emission levels of the nations are still reasonably low compared to the rest of the world. But the situation might change in the future. To evaluate the future, this study attempts to forecast the Carbon Dioxide emission of Bangladesh as a representative of the whole region using ARIMA and VAR models. Then, the behavioral cause of emission is depicted through a game theoretic approach and the emission game is found to resemble the classic “Prisoner’s Dilemma”. Finally, the nudge theory of behavioral economics is incorporated into the payoff matrix to solve the dilemma and to suggest cost-efficient regulatory measures.

BHUTAN’S PAPER ON CLIMATE ACTION, LIFE BELOW WATER AND LIFE ON LAND

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present a unique opportunity for sustaining South Asia in case of eradication of poverty and providing a life of dignity to its entire people. The new set of goals addresses climate action (SDGs 13), life below (SDGs 14) water and life on land (SDGs 15) which plays a vital role in sustaining South Asia. Life below water and life on land has a direct relationship. Climate change has become one of the global issues and it has been challenging issue worldwide today. Bhutan became one of the early mover countries in the Asia Pacific region for SDG localization– identified by United Nations Development Programme in September 2015. The government and the people are joining hands in implementing the Sustainable Development Goals yet so many challenges are faced during the process. Therefore, this paper will try to explore how a change in climate action may impact the life below water and life on land. It will also address some of the challenges faced in our country in terms of global climate change and some of the important measures taken by our Royal government to combat this global challenge.

REVISITING THE COMMONS: SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR INCLUSIVE GROWTH

Conceptualizing anthropogenic climate change as the modern day 'tragedy of commons', the study simulates the effects—1.152% lesser CO2 emissions, 2.617% lesser use of coal for meeting energy needs and 2.29% lesser fuel usage by 2025—of introducing a nominal 'carbon-indexed energy tax' of ₹ 400 on all fuel users. Its distributional consequences and regressive nature prompted an evaluation of the "fairness" and effectiveness of various carbon pricing strategies—quotas, cap and trade, compensation—using Hardin's analogy. Although inclusive growth and sustainable management of the commons seems elusive, local enforcement and public participation can ensure it. The paper also recommends cross-border CPR management and intra-regional cooperation (BCAs and disaster management) for long-term green growth across South Asia.

ELECTRIC VEHICLES: THE NEXT GENERATION

This report is about EVs which is a burning topic nowadays. What has been done and what can be done to promote EVs are discussed below. The relationship between pollution index and Combustion engine car are shown. Benefits of using EVs are also mentioned. A descriptive model is applied to show the policies and techniques to be used by government and private sectors for the development of EVs in Nepal. Things that are done in the global arena in the field of EVs can also be seen below.

IMPACT OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ON PAKISTAN’S ENVIRONMENT

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are the leading cause of anthropogenic climate change with serious inter-generational repercussions on a country’s economy, environment, and society. In this paper, I will be estimating the effects of economic and demographic factors such as GDP/capita, population, urbanization, and technology on total greenhouse gas emissions in Pakistan. Using a STIRPAT model, I find that population and GDP/capita have a robust positive effect on emissions. However, the proxy used for technology can affect this explanatory variable’s effect on GHG. Three proxies have been used to measure this positive effect. Policy recommendations for reducing GHG impact for Pakistan includes the government taking measure to control the way the population is increasing, ensuring a stable density per capita, or making sure that public services are adequate to cater to the growing population. It also entails investment in the cleaner household and industrial technology. This can be made possible through the introduction of green taxes, subsidies, and formation of tradable permits market. Effects of rising income can be subsided through taking measures to divert increasing demand towards environmentally friendly goods and services.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS RELEVANCE TO AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

Climate change intensifies the risk which has encountered on sustainable development of South Asia due to its higher dependency on agriculture for livelihood security and economy. This study is intended to enrich the debate on the adaptation to climate change, which includes farm level adaptation practices, enabled policies, researchers, and regional cooperation in South Asia. To reveal the actual scenario precisely a study was carried out among the farmers in the Dry Zone across certain major and minor irrigation schemes in Sri Lanka. The study involved in analyzing the farm level adaptation practices by employing multinomial logit model and failures in enabling policies and programs for adaptation. Results indicate that the awareness of climate change is an important determinant in adopting the practices. To conclude the study identifies options for designing effective adaptation programs in South Asian nations that could assist them in increasing their adaptive capacity to climate change.