No Poverty, Zero Hunger, and Reduced Inequalities

DETERMINANTS OF FOOD SECURITY AMONG AFGHAN HOUSEHOLDS: A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

The presence of food security in all dimensions is bigger achievement toward sustainable development. If we accept this truth that human resources are pillars of development than we must accept that hunger and malnutrition are the biggest barriers toward development. Afghanistan as a least developing country has 28% severe and moderate food insecure people of total population. This study examined the household level determinants of Afghan household food security and hunger. Multinomial Logistic Regression is used in order to assess the relationship between food security and household wealth and income, education, occupation, food resource and socio-demographic factors. This study is conducted using NRVA Survey data of Afghanistan Central Statistics Organization. Findings have shown the positive significant influence of household wealth, livestock and irrigated land ownership, higher education, crop producing, small business ownership and physical distance to market, on food security level while the impact of household size, household head gender, and occupation with low wages had a negative significant impact. Household-level food security determinants are mechanisms through which Afghans are led to chronic nutrition insecurity. Agriculture and Education development and rural-urban linkages would be the optimum solutions to meet SDG 2 on 2030.

FOSTERING RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTERED ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN RURAL AREAS TO REDUCE POVERTY IN SOUTH ASIA.

The main goal of this paper is to find if renewable energy policies and initiatives can contribute towards poverty reduction in the rural areas of the South Asian countries e.g. Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka. Firstly, this paper looks into the current poverty and renewable energy scenario of these countries. Then, case studies of two organizations focusing on renewable energy, i.e. Grameen Shakti and Barefoot College, are done. It is found that these organizations have trained and created jobs for the local women by enabling them to assemble solar panels for their own localities. Furthermore, access to electricity has helped create other income generating activities contributing towards poverty reduction. Moreover, the paper provides policy guidelines for the governments focusing on expanding the model of Grameen Shakti and Barefoot College further. Finally, the paper concludes that the production and usage of renewable energy technologies can contribute towards poverty reduction in South Asia.

BHUTAN’S PAPER ON NO POVERTY, ZERO HUNGER, AND REDUCED INEQUALITIES

This paper will explore on sustainable goal on zero poverty, zero hunger, and reduced inequalities. Eradication of all forms of poverty is the target of the new sustainable goal. If poverty can be eradicated to zero we might achieve zero level of hunger since zero hunger can be maintained in the form of achievement of food security, improved nutrition, and promotion of sustainable agricultural sector in the country. This paper will present a brief description of the situation of poverty and the efforts of the government in fulfilling the balanced growth by removing inequalities in the region.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE SCHEME

The institution of a legal right to work through the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), 2005, was a significant development in the offensive against poverty. This paper seeks to evaluate the poverty alleviation potential of NREGS and highlight the major factors preventing it from being realized. There is an attempt to develop a game theoretic perspective to rural wage growth with an NREGA intervention and to understand consumption behavior among NREGA participants.

DOES REMITTANCE HELP TO REDUCE HUNGER IN NEPAL? EVIDENCE FROM NEPAL LIVING STANDARD SURVEY

The study reveals remittance is the main source of income for a household Nepal to run their daily life. People are being able to consume food because of the remittance not of their self-produced food products. The coefficient of family size squared shows the increase in food poverty with the increase in a number of family members. This paper suggests that resident of mountain and hill are suffering more from food poverty and needs to target them to resolve food poverty. A logistic regression technique is adapted to answer the research questions. The study finds out that food poverty has a negative impact on poverty and obstructing from attaining self-sufficiency in food products. Furthermore, food security programs and better employment policies can help significantly to reduce the food poverty in Nepal.

CHILD NUTRITION IN SOCIAL SAFETY NET BENEFICIARY HOUSEHOLDS IN PAKISTAN

This paper attempts to identify potential factors that are predictive of child nutrition status in households of beneficiaries of the Benazir Income Support Program and a subset of non-beneficiaries within a similar multi-poverty index range. Using data from a 4 round survey from 2011 to 2016, three models are estimated including repeat cross-sectional OLS regressions of weight-to-age, height-to-age Z scores, a logistic regression of stunting and wasting binary identifiers and a pooled cross-section OLS regression of Z scores against potential explanatory variables of child characteristics, household characteristics and household head characteristics. We find links to child nutrition in these households to child disability, incidences of diarrhea, presence of sanitation facilities, asset ownership, and income shocks. Households with heads who are older, female and have better literacy are likely to have better child nutrition indicators. The paper concludes by recommending inceptive guidelines for a conditional cash transfer intervention in households identified through the National Socio-Economic Registry on the basis of a predictive index for child nutrition status.

“If the world was issued a scorecard for the way its infants and young children were fed it would receive a failing grade” (From the first hour of life, 2016).

AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY OF SMALL, MEDIUM AND LARGE SCALE FOOD MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN SRI LANKA

This paper analyzes empirically the changes in Sri Lanka’s food manufacturing productivity during a period of regime shift from import-substituting industrialization (ISI) to export-oriented industrialization (EOI) after 1977. Food manufacturing industry is important to the Sri Lankan economy due to its significant contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), generation of employment opportunities and earning of foreign exchange. Further, it increases domestic processed food production and fulfills the nutrients required in the nation. However, global processed food demand will arise up to 70% by 2050. By increasing the productivity growth in the food manufacturing industry we can feed the world population in the future and engage significantly with the world market activities. Cobb-Douglas production function and Solow residual were the models used in this study on a time series data set to focus on the effects of various policy frameworks on productivity growth. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) was used to measure the productivity growth in food manufacturing industry during 1978-2014 by using the data in Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) on food manufacturing industry carried out by Department of Census and Statistics (DCS). This study reveals several findings Sri Lanka’s food manufacturing productivity at the various political eras. Further, a study has found that output growth of Sri Lanka’s food manufacturing sector has been input driven during the early years of policy reforms, but the output growth has been TFP driven during the consolidation periods. Further, special attention should be given to exploring short term as well as long-term strategies to improve TFP.